It has been recommended that China vigorously investigate, prosecute, and impose prison sentences on perpetrators of sex trafficking; update the legal framework concerning the criminzaliztion of sex trafficking, including the facilitation of prostitution involving children younger than the age of 18; expand efforts to institute proactive, formal procedures to systematically … But it is no different. For example, after the Houston Rockets general manager irked the Chinese government by tweeting his support for Hong Kong’s pro-democracy protesters, all of the National Basketball Association’s 11 official Chinese business partners—including a travel website, a milk producer, and a fast-food chain—suspended ties with the league. The result for the human rights cause is a “perfect storm”—a powerful centralized state, a coterie of like-minded rulers, a void of leadership among countries that might have stood for human rights, and a disappointing collection of democracies willing to sell the rope that is strangling the system of rights that they purport to uphold. The Palgrave International Handbook of Human Trafficking is divided into eight key sections: 1. Mounting a Great Wall of Disinformation, Chinese authorities absurdly claimed that this mass deprivation of liberty was an exercise in “vocational training.” They then arranged for delegations of diplomats and journalists to visit some of those in “training.” What little opportunity there was to speak freely with the Muslim inmates quickly punctured the cover story. China’s development banks, such as the China Development Bank and the Ex-Im Bank of China, have a growing global reach but lack critical human rights safeguards. References have also been found to various training programs related to COMMIT, an anti-trafficking initiative involving Cambodia, China, Lao PDR, Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam. The Chinese model of repressive economic growth can be refuted by highlighting the risks of unaccountable rule, from the millions left behind in China to the devastation caused by the likes of Mugabe of Zimbabwe or Maduro of Venezuela. Several governments that in their foreign policies once could be depended upon to defend human rights at least some of the time have largely abandoned the cause. And while other governments commit serious human rights violations, no other government flexes its political muscles with such vigor and determination to undermine the international human rights standards and institutions that could hold it to account. Human trafficking is a truly international crime, ... our response at the border has not been well enough informed or coordinated. Chinese companies are not the only ones selling these abusive systems—others include companies from Germany, Israel, and the United Kingdom—but China’s affordable packages make them attractive to governments that want to emulate its surveillance model. Russia and China have been downgraded to bottom-tier nations for their lack of efforts to fight human trafficking, a U.S. government report says. As a first principle, no one should equate the Chinese government with the people of China. When China’s human rights record came up for a routine review in 2018 and 2019 at the Human Rights Council, Chinese officials threatened critical delegations while encouraging allies to heap praise. A uthorities on both sides of the border have failed to stop the trafficking of hundreds of women from Myanmar to China, says a new report released by Human Rights Watch (HRW) on Thursday.. When China’s human rights record came up for a routine review in 2018 and 2019 at the Human Rights Council, Chinese officials threatened critical delegations while encouraging allies to … For example, Beijing has been clear that it will not tolerate pressure on Myanmar, despite a UN fact-finding mission’s conclusion that Myanmar’s top military leaders should be investigated and prosecuted for genocide. Remarkably, fearing the wrath of the Chinese government, none was willing to read the statement aloud to the council, as is customary. Their foreign bank accounts should be frozen. Officials boast of the country’s economic progress, but they censor information about its widening income inequality, discriminatory access to public benefits, selective corruption prosecutions, and the one in five children left behind in rural areas as their parents seek work in other parts of the country. [24] Gong’anbu Xingzhen Ju Du Hangwei Juzhang Zai Meigonghe Ciquyu Hezuo Fanguai Diwuci Gaoguan Huiyi Shang de Fayan [Speech of Du Hangwei, Director-General of the MPS Criminal Investigation Bureau on the Fifth Meeting of the Greater Mekong Sub-region Anti-Trafficking Cooperation], MPS, http://www.mps.gov.cn/n16/ n983040/n1294479/n1294540/1718652.html (last visited Feb. 5, 2016), archived at https://perma.cc/MK66-3AH8. It is much worse to impose that censorship on their employees and customers around the world. By the same token, companies and universities should draft and promote codes of conduct for dealing with China. For national, bi- and multilateral laws and agreements on human trafficking involving China, please see the resource section. China's harvesting of detainees' organs serves a booming transplant trade that is worth some $1 billion a year, according to an international tribunal. Hong Kong’s limited freedoms, under “one country, two systems,” are being severely challenged. Instead, governments should support critical voices in China and publicly insist that, in the absence of genuine elections, Beijing does not represent the people there. The government’s nationalist campaigns to promote the “China dream,” and its trumpeting of debatable anti-corruption efforts, do not change this underlying reality. Trafficking in Persons and Response Mechanisms. Governments committed to human rights should be sensitive to the double standards of “China exceptionalism” that can creep into their conduct and enable Beijing to get away with abuses for which poorer and less powerful governments would be challenged. Human Rights Watch defends the rights of people in 90 countries worldwide, spotlighting abuses and bringing perpetrators to justice, Human Rights Watch is a 501(C)(3) nonprofit registered in the US under EIN: 13-2875808, China’s Template for Prosperous Dictatorship, Two Years After #MeToo Erupts, A New Treaty Anchors Workplace Shifts, Holding Companies to Account: Momentum Builds for Corporate Human Rights Duties, As Killer Robots Loom, Demands Grow to Keep Humans in Control of Use of Force, Shutting Down the Internet to Shut Up Critics, With Millions Out of School, the Countdown Begins to Get All Children into Quality, Accessible Education, Going to the Bank for Food, Not Money: The Growing Reality of Hunger in “Rich” Countries. of human trafficking in China range from forced marriage to forced labor, forced sex. [9]  A heavier penalty within the scope of paragraph 1 will be imposed on those organizing or forcing minors to engage in prostitution, according to the new paragraph 2 of the article. People’s “trustworthiness”—as assessed by the government—determines their access to desirable social goods, such as the right to live in an attractive city, send one’s children to a private school, or travel by plane or high-speed train. Women and children from Myanmar, Vietnam, For example, staff at the Chinese embassy in Washington met with and praised a group of students for censuring a Chinese student at the University of Maryland for criticizing the Chinese government in a commencement speech. Through the COMMIT, the six governments of the Greater Mekong Sub-region (Cambodia, China, Lao PDR, Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam) are committed to a response to human trafficking, highlighting the need for multilateral, bilateral, and government-NGO cooperation to fight human trafficking. Despite the lack of significant efforts, the government took some steps to address trafficking, including by continuing to cooperate with international authorities to address forced and fraudulent marriages in China, a key trafficking vulnerability for foreign women and girls, and by continuing to seek accountability for officials complicit in commercial sex crimes that … 14, 1997, effective Oct. 1, 1997, as last amended Feb. 25, 2011), Xinbian Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo Changyong Falü Fagui Quanshu 6-1 (2014), English translation available at Westlawchina.com (by subscription). In recent years, China has opposed resolutions condemning human rights violations in Myanmar, Syria, Iran, the Philippines, Burundi, Venezuela, Nicaragua, Yemen, Eritrea, and Belarus. A Human Rights Watch report released this year described the forces that have galvanized bride trafficking from Myanmar to China: “A porous border … It doesn’t matter where I am, or what passport I hold. 7. It has a number of central government departments and agencies as its member units, including the Central Office for Comprehensive Management of Public Security and the Ministry of Justice. Rising to this challenge demands a radical break from the dominant complacency and business-as-usual approach. If every government alone faces a choice between seeking Chinese economic opportunities and speaking out against Chinese repression, many will opt for silence. [21] Quanguo Daguai Fanguai Gongzuo Peixunban Kaiban [National Combating-and-Anti-Trafficking Workshop Held], UN-ACT China (Mar. If they encourage debates about human rights violations by Israel, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, or Venezuela, why not by China? The detentions have created countless “orphans”—children whose parents are in custody—who are now held in schools and state-run orphanages where they, too, are subjected to indoctrination. Vietnamese citizens, primarily women … World leaders who visited China, including those who see themselves as human rights champions, have not performed significantly better. —Uyghur Muslim with European citizenship, Washington, September 2019. In response to these two instances of collective criticism, the Chinese government organized its own joint statements of support, which shamelessly applauded its “counter-terrorism and de-radicalization measures in Xinjiang” that have led to a “stronger sense of happiness, fulfillment, and security.” Up to 54 governments signed on, including such notorious human rights violators as Russia, Syria, North Korea, Myanmar, Belarus, Venezuela, and Saudi Arabia. –A Chinese human rights defender about the UN, Geneva, June 2016. Outwardly confident about its success in representing people across the country, the Chinese Communist Party is worried about the consequences of unfettered popular debate and political organization, and thus afraid to subject itself to popular scrutiny. Instead, the photo-ops of smiling officials combined with the public silence on human rights signal to the world—and, most important, the people of China, who are the ultimate agents of change—that the VIP visitor is indifferent to Beijing’s repression. Hong Kong-based Cathay Pacific airlines threatened to fire employees in Hong Kong who supported or participated in the 2019 pro-democracy protests there. Abroad, it uses its growing economic clout to silence critics and to carry out the most intense attack on the global system for enforcing human rights since that system began to emerge in the mid-20th century. However these would benefit from greater collaboration and coordination. Prohibiting the abduction and trafficking of women or children, article 240 does not apply to the trafficking of men. This inconsistency makes it easier for Beijing to discount Washington’s human rights criticisms. Notably, however, OIC members Turkey and Albania have supported the call for an independent UN assessment in Xinjiang, while Qatar withdrew from China’s counterstatement. —University student, Vancouver, June 2018. [12] Zhongguo Fandui Guaimai Funü Ertong Xingdong Jihua (2008–2012) [China National Plan of Action on Combating Trafficking in Women and Children (2008–2012) ] (2008–2012 National Action Plan), Central People’s Government, http://www.gov.cn/zwgk/2007-12/20/content_839479.htm, archived at https://perma.cc/L8TV-NPXV, English translation at http://www.humantrafficking.org/uploads/publications/China_ National_Plan_of_Action_on_Combating_Trafficking_in_Women_and_Children_December_2007.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/UQ89-5PBJ. • to provide a short overview of the available evidence about the scale of human trafficking in the UK • to review the general UK policy response to trafficking and the more specific measures designed for London 2012 • to examine areas within the current UK strategy that could be improved, with reference to international good practice. The Chinese government, allergic to foreign pressure about its domestic human rights problems, does not think twice about twisting arms to protect its image in international forums. [5], Under the Criminal Law as it existed before the Ninth Amendment, the buyer of an abducted woman or child might be exempt from criminal punishment if the buyer did not obstruct the woman from returning home of her own will, or maltreat the child or obstruct the child’s rescue. Under serious circumstances, the punishment is no less than ten years’ or life imprisonment and a fine or confiscation of property. Moreover, the Trump administration’s misguided withdrawal from the UN Human Rights Council because of concerns for Israel has paved the way for the Chinese government to exert greater influence over this central institution for the defense of rights. Some BRI projects are notorious: Sri Lanka’s Hambantota port, which China repossessed for 99 years when debt repayment became impossible, or the loan to build Kenya’s Mombasa-Nairobi railroad, which the government is trying to repay by forcing cargo transporters to use it despite cheaper alternatives. Do those people feel emboldened or disillusioned by the visit? At the UN Human Rights Council, China routinely opposes virtually every human rights initiative that criticizes a particular country unless it is watered down enough to secure that government’s consent. Governments and international financial institutions should offer compelling, rights-respecting alternatives to China’s “no strings” loans and development aid. [12], The Joint Conference is led by the Ministry of Public Security (MPS) and has a number of central government departments and agencies as its member units, including the Central Office for Comprehensive Management of Public Security and the Ministry of Justice (MOJ). Do they hear a voice of sympathy and concern or see only a photo-op at the signing of more commercial contracts? Beijing also flooded the speakers list reserved for civil society organizations with government-sponsored groups tasked with lauding its record. Instead, finding safety in numbers, the group simply submitted the joint statement in writing. Its reaction could pose an existential threat to the rights of people worldwide. What modest opening had existed briefly in recent years for people to express themselves on matters of public concern has been decisively closed. Sex trafficking victims in the country are from all ethnic groups in Vietnam and foreigners. They even deliberately underestimate the number of people with disabilities. They prioritize their power, their families, and their cronies. BRI projects—known for their “no strings” loans—largely ignore human rights and environmental standards. Despite decades of impressive economic growth in China, driven by hundreds of millions of people finally emancipated to lift themselves out of poverty, the Chinese Communist Party is running scared of its own people. 31, 2012), http://www.notip.org.cn/article/Details.asp?LanFlag=1&News Id=7382&classid=20&BID=, archived at https://perma.cc/UN8T-D8FW. First, it demonstrates how small and insignificant the perceived slights are that incur the wrath of various voices in China. Press | Despite the Chinese government’s power and hostility to human rights, its ascent as a global threat to rights is not unstoppable. [23] COMMIT: The Coordinated Mekong Ministerial Initiative Against Trafficking, United Nations Inter-Agency Project on Human Trafficking, http://www.no-trafficking.org/commit.html (last visited Feb. 5, 2016), archived at https://perma.cc/F4NW-V93F. So rather than really being “no strings,” BRI loans effectively impose a separate set of political conditions requiring support for China’s anti-rights agenda. According to article 241 of the Criminal Law, buying an abducted woman or child subjects the buyer to no more than three years’ imprisonment, criminal detention, or public surveillance. Nationally, public policy and media attention demonstrate efforts to expand the recognition of and response to human trafficking (Francino-Olsen, 2019). China does not meet the minimum requirement of standards necessary to combat the rise of human trafficking. The Chinese economy cannot take on the whole world. The Ministry of Public Security (MPS) is primarily responsible for combating crimes of trafficking. OIC members and other states disinclined to challenge Beijing also participated in the propaganda tours of Xinjiang that the Chinese government organized to address criticism of its detention of Muslims. For every Lee Kwan Yew, the late Singaporean leader who is often mentioned by proponents of autocratic rule, there are many more—Robert Mugabe of Zimbabwe, Nicolas Maduro of Venezuela, Abdel Fattah al-Sisi of Egypt, Omar al-Bashir of Sudan, or Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo of Equatorial Guinea—who led their country to ruin. Small steps toward the rule of law have been replaced by the Communist Party’s traditional rule by law. Even in China, an unaccountable system of government allows no voice to those left out of China’s growing economy. The result is that any non-Chinese government or company seeking to do business with China, if it publicly opposes Beijing’s repression, faces not a series of individual Chinese companies’ decisions about how to respond but a single central command, with access to the entire Chinese market—16 percent of the world economy—at stake. The frequent result is neglect, stagnation, and persistent poverty, if not hyperinflation, public health crises, and economic debacle. Effectively combating these crimes requires a comprehensive and coordinated response to prosecute human … While China’s internal migrant population, estimated to exceed 252 million people, exhibits vulnerabilities to exploitation, the lack of available data makes it difficult to determine the prevalence and evolving patterns of human trafficking within the country. Data it collects are used to determine who is detained for “re-education.” In the largest case of arbitrary detention in decades, one million or more Turkic Muslims have been deprived of their freedom, placed in an indefinite detention of forced indoctrination. For the time being, political criteria are not included in this system, but it would take little to add them. China is a main source and also a significant transit and destination country for men, women, and children who are subjected to trafficking in persons, specifically forced labour and forced prostitution. Chinese authorities have long pushed back against foreign concern for human rights as an infringement on its sovereignty, but these efforts were comparatively modest. They were a fig leaf to hide behind, an alibi for indifference. They should fear prosecution for their crimes. 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