arthur galston, agent orange

Scientists found that blood and adipose TCDD levels were higher in Vietnam veterans. E-mail [hidden email], Mailing Address # 34938Washington, D.C. 20090-6503, National Organization of Veterans’ Advocates Agent Orange is a herbicide and defoliant chemical, one of the "tactical use" Rainbow Herbicides.It is widely known for its use by the U.S. military as part of its herbicidal warfare program, Operation Ranch Hand, during the Vietnam War from 1961 to 1971. [98], In 2002, Vietnam and the U.S. held a joint conference on Human Health and Environmental Impacts of Agent Orange. I recently helped a widow win retroactive pay of nearly $100,000 after the death of her ex-husband, a veteran who died of lung cancer from Agent Orange exposure during service. He publishes and lectures widely in the area of veterans benefits. [59], Publications by the United States Public Health Service have shown that Vietnam veterans, overall, have increased rates of cancer, and nerve, digestive, skin, and respiratory disorders. Our success centers around the opinions of leading U.S. medical experts and scientific research. Not only was there no outcry by other states in response to Britain's use, but the U.S. viewed it as establishing a precedent for the use of herbicides and defoliants in jungle warfare." [143], There have been dozens of reports in the press about use and/or storage of military formulated herbicides on Okinawa that are based upon statements by former U.S. service members that had been stationed on the island, photographs, government records, and unearthed storage barrels. Kearns of the University of Bristol. [123] In 2007, the government of Canada offered a one-time ex gratia payment of $20,000 as compensation for Agent Orange exposure at CFB Gagetown. The lawyers for the Vietnamese filed a petition to the U.S. Supreme Court to hear the case. [13] Dioxin easily accumulates in the food chain. We would like to show you a description here but the site won’t allow us. [21][28], Many experts at the time, including Arthur Galston, opposed herbicidal warfare because of concerns about the side effects to humans and the environment by indiscriminately spraying the chemical over a wide area. C’est le procès du premier écocide de l’histoire. Limited or suggested evidence of an association was linked with respiratory cancers (lung, bronchus, trachea, larynx); prostate cancer; multiple myeloma; and bladder cancer. The U.S. military produced millions of gallons of the herbicide, labelling the barrels with a large orange stripe – hence the name. [10] Numerosos estudios han examinado los efectos en la salud relacionados con el Agente Naranja, los compuestos que lo conforman y los subproductos de su fabricación. Contact Advance411 Facebook: Official Site of Advance411 Advance411: Advance411 Links Wallpaper In 1965, 42% of all herbicide spraying was dedicated to food crops. The CIA advised the Department of Labor that it "had no objections" to paying the claim and Labor accepted the claim for payment:.mw-parser-output .templatequote{overflow:hidden;margin:1em 0;padding:0 40px}.mw-parser-output .templatequote .templatequotecite{line-height:1.5em;text-align:left;padding-left:1.6em;margin-top:0}, Civilian Exposure to Agent Orange in Vietnam: GAO-05-371 April 2005.Figure 3: Overview of the Workers' Compensation Claims Process for Contract Employees: " ... Of the 20 claims filed by contract employees [of the united States government], 9 were initially denied by the insurance carriers and 1 was approved for payment. Contact Advance411 Facebook: Official Site of Advance411 Advance411: Advance411 Links Wallpaper Scientific evidence shows that serious neurological issues can result from exposure to Agent Orange. TCDD is a dioxin that easily enters the body through touch or ingestion. At Eric Gang and Associates Law Office, we develop a comprehensive legal strategy based on sound legal and medical research. The key to a successful claim for VA benefits covering a disability associated with Agent Orange exposure is to carefully-craft the legal and medical strategy the VA expects. [100], A breakthrough in the diplomatic stalemate on this issue occurred as a result of United States President George W. Bush's state visit to Vietnam in November 2006. [115], The Vietnamese government provides small monthly stipends to more than 200,000 Vietnamese believed affected by the herbicides; this totaled $40.8 million in 2008. The U.S. delegation argued that a weapon, by definition, is any device used to injure, defeat, or destroy living beings, structures, or systems, and Agent Orange did not qualify under that definition. She has a pair of older sisters, the joyless twins, Patty, and Selma, both of whom passionately disapprove of Homer. [17], After the Malayan conflict ended in 1960, the U.S. considered the British precedent in deciding that the use of defoliants was a legal tactic of warfare. [57], Starting in the early 1990s, the federal government directed the Institute of Medicine (IOM), now known as the National Academy of Medicine, to issue reports every 2 years on the health effects of Agent Orange and similar herbicides. She has been shown to support PETA (although she eats eggs and dairy) and the Free Tibetan movement, is highly against animal cruelty and has adopted a diet of vegetarianism from Season 7 and keeping this dietary regime onward. With access to the nation’s top medical experts and intensive examination of the scientific literature, our veterans’ disability lawyers at Gang & Associates, LLC are successful in winning these claims for many veterans. Diem's request launched a policy debate in the White House and the State and Defense Departments. [87] Many veterans who were victims of Agent Orange exposure were outraged the case had been settled instead of going to court and felt they had been betrayed by the lawyers. [10] TCDD was a trace (typically 2-3 ppm, ranging from 50 ppb to 50 ppm)[11] - but significant - contaminant of Agent Orange. [108][109], The Department of Defense's Advanced Research Project Agency's (ARPA) Project AGILE was instrumental in the United States' development of herbicides as a military weapon, an undertaking inspired by the British use of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T to destroy jungle-grown crops and bushes during the insurgency in Malaya. [66] However, a critical analysis of these studies and 35 others consistently found that there was no significant increase in prostate cancer incidence or mortality in those exposed to Agent Orange or 2,3,7,8-tetracholorodibenzo-p-dioxin. The VA denied her claim. [122], The U.S. military, with the permission of the Canadian government, tested herbicides, including Agent Orange, in the forests near Canadian Forces Base Gagetown in New Brunswick. The persistent nature of dioxins, erosion caused by loss of tree cover, and loss of seedling forest stock meant that reforestation was difficult (or impossible) in many areas. Beginning in January 1962, U.S. helicopters, boats, trucks and C-123 transport planes sprayed nearly 18% of South Vietnam’s forests, plus parts of Cambodia and Laos, with various herbicides, with peak sprays between 1967 and 1969. TCDD is the most toxic of the dioxins and is classified as a human carcinogen by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Woodford of Agricultural Research Council's Unit of Experimental Agronomy and H.G.H. A Fairchild C-123 Provider aircraft spraying defoliant in South Vietnam in 1962. Of 1 million Vietnam veterans, doctors diagnosed 1,833 with Parkinsonism, 5,484 with bladder cancer and 15,983 with hypothyroidism. [40], The U.S. military began targeting food crops in October 1962, primarily using Agent Blue; the American public was not made aware of the crop destruction programs until 1965 (and it was then believed that crop spraying had begun that spring). For example, in Quang Ngai province, 85% of the crop lands were scheduled to be destroyed in 1970 alone. For many disabled veterans exposed to Agent Orange, winning service connection for a disease not on the VA’s list can seem impossible. [141], From July to September 1977 during Operation Pacer HO, the entire stock of Agent Orange from both Herbicide Orange storage sites at Gulfport and Johnston Atoll was subsequently incinerated in four separate burns in the vicinity of Johnston Island aboard the Dutch-owned waste incineration ship MT Vulcanus. [25][26][22] As the British did in Malaya, the goal of the U.S. was to defoliate rural/forested land, depriving guerrillas of food and concealment and clearing sensitive areas such as around base perimeters. Between 1962 and 1971, the U.S. Military sprayed 12,000 square miles of Vietnam forests with over 20 million U.S. gallons of defoliant in an herbicidal warfare effort, resulting in major – often deadly – consequences for over 1 million Vietnam vets. [141] However, these herbicides were expensive, and the Air Force wanted to resell its surplus instead of dumping it at sea. Defoliants eroded tree cover and seedling forest stock, making reforestation difficult in numerous areas. Veteran is not a doctor and therefore not competent to offer opinions of medical causation or diagnosis. "[161][162], The Seabee's Naval Construction Battalion Center at Gulfport, Mississippi was the largest storage site in the United States for agent orange. Researchers also suggest TCDD causes birth defects in the children of those exposed to Agent Orange. Between 2002 and 2015, the VA awarded benefits for Agent Orange exposure to over 650,000 veterans. [53] After returning home, Vietnam veterans began to suspect their ill health or the instances of their wives having miscarriages or children born with birth defects might be related to Agent Orange and the other toxic herbicides to which they had been exposed in Vietnam. Neither Williams nor Bosworth have produced verifiable evidence to support their claims. While the VA has not yet added hypertension to the list of diseases associated with Agent Orange exposure, scientific evidence may be strong enough to win a claim for benefits for this health condition. In 2015, the VA released data showing the projected increase in demand for VA benefits, noting that 40 years after the end of the Vietnam War, veterans receiving disability compensation has not yet peaked. [50] Despite this, statistical analysis of the studies they examined resulted in data that the increase in birth defects/relative risk (RR) from exposure to agent orange/dioxin "appears" to be on the order of 3 in Vietnamese-funded studies, but 1.29 in the rest of the world. Studies found the highest levels of TCDD exposure in those living and working around the Vietnam - Cambodia border and the Long Mountains near Truong Son. "[58], At the request of the Veterans Administration, the Institute Of Medicine evaluated whether service in these C-123 aircraft could have plausibly exposed soldiers and been detrimental to their health. By 1989, the veterans' fears were confirmed when it was decided how the money from the settlement would be paid out. [22] A detailed account of how the British experimented with the spraying of herbicides was written by two scientists, E.K. Even if your disease is not on the VAs list of presumptive diseases caused by Agent Orange exposure, you can win your VA claim for benefits. veterans stationed at the Navy’s Camp Garcia bioweapons site in Vieques, Puerto Rico during the 1970’s may also have been exposed to Agent Orange. Herbicides", "Professor Nguyen Viet Nhan: Helping Child Victims of Agent Orange Defoliation", "Ủng hộ nạn nhân chất độc da cam/Đi-ô-xin", Evaluation of Contamination at the Agent Orange Dioxin Hot Spots in Bien Hoa, Phu Cat and Vicinity, Vietnam, Assessment of dioxin contamination in the environment and human population in the vicinity of Da Nang Airbase, Viet Nam, "Killing Me Softly: How Agent Orange Murders Vietnam's Children", Veterans Exposed to Agent Orange: Legislative History, Litigation, and Current Issues, "Most Americans favor compensation for Agent Orange victims", Post-Vietnam Dioxin Exposure in Agent Orange-Contaminated C-123 Aircraft, "Vietnam Era Health Retrospective Observational Study", "Agent Orange: Diseases Associated with Agent Orange Exposure", "Agent Orange exposure, Vietnam War veterans, and the risk of prostate cancer", "Agent Orange as a risk factor for high-grade prostate cancer", "A critical review of the epidemiology of Agent Orange/TCDD and prostate cancer", "The U.S.'s Toxic Agent Orange Legacy: Washington Has Admitted to the Long-Lasting Effects of Dioxin Use in Vietnam, But Has Largely Sidestepped the Issue in Neighboring Cambodia and Laos", 'Agent Orange: Limited Information Is Available on the Number of Civilians Exposed in Vietnam and Their Workers' Compensation Claims,', "Convention on the Prohibition of the Military or Any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques", "Practice Relating to Rule 76. Many other cancers and illnesses that the VA doesn’t included on its list of presumptive conditions may still be linked to Agent Orange exposure. Recent research suggests that prostate cancer is twice as aggressive in veterans exposed to Agent Orange. Blood tests done in the 1970s confirmed toxic levels of TCDD in U.S. military members who served in Vietnam. Ambassador to Vietnam David Shear. The fastest way to gain access to the best medical experts and appropriate scientific literature for your specific case is to hire a veteran’s disability lawyer with access to the nation’s top medical and scientific experts. Agent Orange Way back in 1943, plant biologist Arthur Galston was studying a way to alter the growing season of soybeans when he started to work with triiodobenzoic acid as a plant growth hormone. View our video for more information on how to choose a qualified VA disability appeals lawyer. His work has been mentioned in media outlets across the country. U.S. Army Operations In Vietnam: River bank defoliation. The committee has been meeting yearly to explore areas of scientific cooperation, technical assistance and environmental remediation of dioxin. Agent Orange contains a toxic contaminant known as TCDD, classified by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as a human carcinogen (causes cancer). "[101] On May 25, 2007, President Bush signed the U.S. Troop Readiness, Veterans' Care, Katrina Recovery, and Iraq Accountability Appropriations Act, 2007 into law for the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan that included an earmark of $3 million specifically for funding for programs for the remediation of dioxin 'hotspots' on former U.S. military bases, and for public health programs for the surrounding communities;[102] some authors consider this to be completely inadequate, pointing out that the Da Nang Airbase alone will cost $14 million to clean up, and that three others are estimated to require $60 million for cleanup. This genetic damage leads to a variety of cancers and other illnesses, symptoms of which may not show up for 50 years or more. [81], The chemical companies involved denied that there was a link between Agent Orange and the veterans' medical problems. We would like to show you a description here but the site won’t allow us. Some of the soil and sediment on the bases have extremely high levels of dioxin requiring remediation. This exception voids any protection of any military and civilian personnel from a napalm attack or something like Agent Orange and is clear that it was designed to cover situations like U.S. tactics in Vietnam. [140][144], Agent Orange was tested by the United States in Thailand during the Vietnam War. It is widely known for its use by the U.S. military as part of its herbicidal warfare program, Operation Ranch Hand,[1] during the Vietnam War from 1961 to 1971. Kan Lay, 55 years old, and her son, Ke Van Bec, 14 years old, A Luoi Valley, Vietnam, December 2004. There have been continuing claims, as yet unproven, that the suburb of Paritutu has also been polluted. Service Connection for the Cause of Death, Exposure to Agent Orange and Other Herbicides, Gulf War Veterans with Chronic Disabilities, Heart Disabilities and Other Cardiovascular Conditions, Serious Neurological Disorders and Organic Brain Syndrome, Service Disabled Veteran Owned Small Businesses Fraud, Stationed at bases that stored Agent Orange, Stationed at bases that tested or prepared Agent Orange, Serving as flight crew of C-123 transport planes, Serving as aircraft mechanics for C-123 transport planes, Working on helicopters, trucks or boats that sprayed Agent Orange, Working as medical evacuation crews on C-123 transport planes, Non-Vietnam veterans working on C-123 aircraft in the U.S. between 1972 – 1982, Non-Vietnam veterans stationed at the Navy’s Camp Garcia in Vieques, Puerto Rico, Chronic B cell leukemias (including hairy-cell leukemia and chronic lymphocytic leukemia), Chloracne (and skin disorders like chloracne), Peripheral neuropathy (acute and subacute), Soft tissue sarcoma (excluding chondrosarcoma, Kaposi’s sarcoma, mesothelioma and osteosarcoma). In November 1961, Kennedy authorized the start of Operation Ranch Hand, the codename for the United States Air Force's herbicide program in Vietnam. [17], In 1943, the United States Department of the Army contracted botanist and bioethicist Arthur Galston, who discovered the defoliants later used in Agent Orange, and his employer University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign to study the effects of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T on cereal grains (including rice) and broadleaf crops. During 1952–53, the unit supervised the aerial spraying of 2,4,5-T in Kenya to assess the value of defoliants in the eradication of tsetse fly. A group of handicapped children in Ho Chi Minh, some of them affected by Agent Orange. An international group of veterans from the U.S. and its allies during the Vietnam War working with their former enemy—veterans from the Vietnam Veterans Association—established the Vietnam Friendship Village outside of Hanoi. The most reliable method of proving service connection for pancreatic cancer is based on a secondary relationship between existing service-connected type 2 diabetes. Medical condition did not appear during service or for many years after. It was also used by the U.S. military in Laos and Cambodia during the Vietnam War because forests near the border with Vietnam were used by the Viet Cong. The affected residents are living in substandard conditions with many genetic diseases. Providing Training For Those Who Represent America’s Veterans and Their Dependents Since 1993. After losing a decision in 2002, they filed an appeal. [128] The Toronto Star reported that, "records from the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s show forestry workers, often students and junior rangers, spent weeks at a time as human markers holding red, helium-filled balloons on fishing lines while low-flying planes sprayed toxic herbicides including an infamous chemical mixture known as Agent Orange on the brush and the boys below. With the help of our medical experts and extensive review of scientific research, we helped her win the claim for service connection and VA compensation. [26][28], Agent Orange was usually sprayed from helicopters or from low-flying C-123 Provider aircraft, fitted with sprayers and "MC-1 Hourglass" pump systems and 1,000 U.S. gallons (3,800 L) chemical tanks. On March 10, 2005, Judge Jack B. Weinstein of the Eastern District – who had presided over the 1984 U.S. veterans class-action lawsuit – dismissed the lawsuit, ruling there was no legal basis for the plaintiffs' claims. In order to qualify for compensation, veterans must have served on or near the perimeters of military bases in Thailand during the Vietnam Era, where herbicides were tested and stored outside of Vietnam, veterans who were crew members on C-123 planes flown after the Vietnam War, or were associated with Department of Defense (DoD) projects to test, dispose of, or store herbicides in the U.S.[55], By April 1993, the Department of Veterans Affairs had compensated only 486 victims, although it had received disability claims from 39,419 soldiers who had been exposed to Agent Orange while serving in Vietnam. Secretary of State Dean Rusk advised President John F. Kennedy that the British had established a precedent for warfare with herbicides in Malaya.[23]. As of 2004, some records of the storage and disposition of Agent Orange at Johnston Atoll have been associated with the historical records of Operation Red Hat. [7] Agent Orange has also caused enormous environmental damage in Vietnam. Understanding this difference - and educating the medical experts on this distinction - is vital to success in these cases. As a result, the U.S. began a full-scale production of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T and would have used it against Japan in 1946 during Operation Downfall if the war had continued. Beginning in January 1962, U.S. helicopters, boats, trucks and C-123 transport planes sprayed nearly 18% of South Vietnam’s forests, plus parts of Cambodia and Laos, with various herbicides, with peak sprays between 1967 and 1969. Animal species diversity was also impacted; in one study a Harvard biologist found 24 species of birds and 5 species of mammals in a sprayed forest, while in two adjacent sections of unsprayed forest there were 145 and 170 species of birds and 30 and 55 species of mammals. [96], In 2011, an appraisal of the 20 year long Air Force Health Study that began in 1982 indicates that the results of the AFHS as they pertain to Agent Orange, do not provide evidence of disease in the Operation Ranch Hand veterans caused by "their elevated levels of exposure to Agent Orange". [92], In 1991, Congress enacted the Agent Orange Act, giving the Department of Veterans Affairs the authority to declare certain conditions "presumptive" to exposure to Agent Orange/dioxin, making these veterans who served in Vietnam eligible to receive treatment and compensation for these conditions. The government of Vietnam says as many as three million people have suffered illness because of Agent Orange,[4] and the Red Cross of Vietnam estimates that up to one million people are disabled or have health problems as a result of Agent Orange contamination. Monsanto agreed to pay up to $9 million for cleanup of affected homes, $84 million for medical monitoring of people affected, and the community's legal fees. [19] He discovered both that 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) would speed up the flowering of soybeans and that in higher concentrations it would defoliate the soybeans. You can reach him at (888) 878-9350 or www.veteransdisabilityinfo.com. The VA presumes that any veteran who served in Vietnam between January 9, 1962 and May 7, 1975 was exposed to Agent Orange. [121], In 2008, Australian researcher Jean Williams claimed that cancer rates in Innisfail, Queensland, were 10 times higher than the state average because of secret testing of Agent Orange by the Australian military scientists during the Vietnam War. A qualified veterans’ disability benefits lawyer can help you appeal the decision and make the case for why you deserve disability benefits. [81] The corporate defendants sought to escape culpability by blaming everything on the U.S. Operation Pacer IVY collected Agent Orange in South Vietnam and removed it in 1972 aboard the ship MV Transpacific for storage on Johnston Atoll. Yet they still keep smiling, singing in their great innocence, at the presence of some visitors, craving for something beautiful. The claim that was approved by Labor for payment involved a self-insured contractor to the CIA that was no longer in business. Way back in 1943, plant biologist Arthur Galston developed a chemical that would accelerate the growth of soybeans and allow them to be grown in areas with a short season. [48][49], In 2006, Anh Duc Ngo and colleagues of the University of Texas Health Science Center published a meta-analysis that exposed a large amount of heterogeneity (different findings) between studies, a finding consistent with a lack of consensus on the issue. As of 2006, there were 11 such villages, thus granting some social protection to fewer than a thousand victims. "[146] The 2013 DoD report says that the environmental statement urged by the 1971 report was published in 1974 as "The Department of Air Force Final Environmental Statement", and that the latter did not find Agent Orange was held in either Thailand or Okinawa. the , . The U.S. defeated most of the resolutions,[41][42] arguing that Agent Orange was not a chemical or a biological weapon as it was considered a herbicide and a defoliant and it was used in effort to destroy plant crops and to deprive the enemy of concealment and not meant to target human beings. Only a few of them can. Animal species diversity sharply reduced in contrast with unsprayed areas.[8][9]. Many Vietnam veterans are now reaching the age where Agent Orange exposure is causing ischemic heart disease, prostate cancer and type II diabetes. U.S. Air Force aircraft spraying defoliant, Spraying Agent Orange in Mekong Delta near Can Tho, 1969, The government of Vietnam says that 4 million of its citizens were exposed to Agent Orange, and as many as 3 million have suffered illnesses because of it; these figures include their children who were exposed. Thirty-two million dollars has so far been allocated by the U.S. Congress to fund the program. Their pronunciation is distorted due to their twisted lips and their memory is quite short. The project studied dioxin (TCDD) levels in blood as well as in adipose tissue in a small group of Vietnam veterans who had been exposed to Agent Orange and compared them to those of a matched control group; the levels were found to be higher in the former group. A U.S. Air Force Fairchild C-123 Provider aircraft crop-dusting in Vietnam during Operation Ranch Hand. Meeting Homer [148] Workers who uncovered the drums fell ill while upgrading the airport near Hua Hin District, 100 km south of Bangkok. [150], The University of Hawaii has acknowledged extensive testing of Agent Orange on behalf of the United States Department of Defense in Hawaii along with mixtures of Agent Orange on Kaua'i Island in 1967–68 and on Hawaii Island in 1966; testing and storage in other U.S. locations has been documented by the United States Department of Veterans Affairs. Therefore, they were not considered a chemical weapon and thus not a violation of international law. [31], The first batch of herbicides was unloaded at Tan Son Nhut Air Base in South Vietnam, on January 9, 1962. [54] [136] In 2007, the Canadian government announced that a research and fact-finding program initiated in 2005 had found the base was safe. [20][21], In the years after the war, the U.S. tested 1,100 compounds, and field trials of the more promising ones were done at British stations in India and Australia, in order to establish their effects in tropical conditions, as well as at the U.S.'s testing ground in Florida. [17] Between 1950 and 1952, trials were conducted in Tanganyika, at Kikore and Stunyansa, to test arboricides and defoliants under tropical conditions. Download the Free 2019-20 Veterans Guide to Disability Benefits, Phone (888) 878-9350 You must be able to show that the unique features of your disease and how it manifests compels the conclusion that your disease could only have resulted from exposure to a toxin like Agent Orange. [19] From these studies arose the concept of using aerial applications of herbicides to destroy enemy crops to disrupt their food supply. Deadline has elapsed since discharge and the first documentation of a claimed disability. MS2170022626, "Dioxins and their effects on human health", Operation Ranch Hand: The Airforce and Herbicides in Southeast Asia 1961–1971, "The early history of scientific and medical research on agent orange", Vietnamese Victims of Agent Orange and US-Vietnam Relations, "Association between Agent Orange and birth defects: systematic review and meta-analysis", "Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in Female Harlan Sprague-Dawley Rats (Gavage Studies)", "The Extent and patterns of usage of Agent Orange and other Herbicides in Vietnam", "The History of the US Department of Defense Programs for the Testing, Evaluation, and Storage of Tactical Herbicides", "Agent Orange in Vietnam: Recent Developments in Remediation: Testimony of Ms. Tran Thi Hoan", "Agent Orange in Vietnam: Recent Developments in Remediation: Testimony of Dr. Nguyen Thi Ngoc Phuong", "Assessment of the health risk of dioxins", International Programme on Chemical Safety, Operation Ranch Hand: Herbicides In Southeast Asia, "Agent Orange Dioxin Contamination in the Environment and Food Chain at Key Hotspots in Viet Nam", "The Legacy of Agent Orange is a Continuing Focus of VVAW", "Vietnam's Agent Orange victims call for solidarity", Children and the Vietnam War 30–40 years after the use of Agent Orange, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency – Dioxin Web site, Report from the National Birth Defects Registry - Birth Defects in Vietnam Veterans' Children, "An Ecological Assessment of Johnston Atoll", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Agent_Orange&oldid=1008497512, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 23 February 2021, at 16:28. 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Advocacy and Education international entitled `` veterans and Agent Orange exposure, competition is tough and sediment the!
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